>> THIS PARTICULAR WORK -- OUR NETWORK IS A COLLABORATION. FOR THOSE WHO ACTUALLY -- WE ARE ACTUALLY THE MANUFACTURER OF SOLUTIONS FOR THE NETWORK MANAGEMENT SYSTEM. THIS WORK IS MORE PURE RESEARCH. THIS WAS AN INTERESTING WORK IN THIS AREA. SINCE WE ARE TALKING ABOUT SWITCHING, WE HAVE SOLUTIONS THROUGH TECHNOLOGY. MY FOCUS HAS BEEN ON -- THIS IS AN OUTLINE OF THE PRESENTATION. I WILL GIVE AN INTRODUCTION AND TALK ABOUT THE STATE OF THE MARKET MODEL IN NORTH AMERICA. THEN, WE WILL TALK ABOUT THE SWITCHING MODEL AND TALK ABOUT THE SELECTION OF CANDIDATES FOR TRANSMISSION SWITCHING. SO A LOT OF THE REGIONAL TRANSMISSION HAS BEEN RELIANT ON WHOLESALE MARKETS TO OPTIMALLY DISPATCH ENERGY FOR THE PAST 15 YEARS. TRADITIONALLY, TRANSMISSIONS ARE TREATED AS NON-DISPATCHABLE ASSETS IN THE NETWORK. ASSUMPTIONS ARE BASED ON THE FACT -- WE WILL TALK ABOUT THAT. IN OPTIMIZING THE TRANSMISSION TOPOLOGY, WE ARE MAXIMIZING THE MARKETS ARE PLUS AND IMPROVING ECONOMIC EFFICIENCY. THE CHALLENGES ARE A SIGNIFICANT NUMBER OF ADDITIONAL INTEGER VARIABLES REQUIRED. ONE IDEA IS HAVING UP TO MOM TRANSMISSION SWITCHING FOR THE WHOLE NETWORK, A SET OF TRANSMISSION LINES THAT WE COULD POTENTIALLY SWITCH OFF. IN SUCH A WAY THAT IT IS MORE PRACTICAL. ONE OF OUR OBJECTIVES IS TO LOOK INTO WHETHER THIS IS A TRACTABLE PROBLEM AND ALSO THE COMPUTATIONS. THE SOFTWARE WE ARE TALKING ABOUT IS MOSTLY FOCUSING ON RTO AND ISO. IN AMERICA, WE HAVE ALL THESE RTO AND ISO. NEW ENGLAND, PJM , WE HAVE THE MARKETS. COMPARED TO EUROPEAN MARKETS, THERE IS A DIFFERENCE BETWEEN THE MARKETS. IN NORTH AMERICA, THE OPTIMIZATION APPROACH -- BEFORE, CALIFORNIA EXCHANGE AND ISO'S ARE TWO SEPARATE ENTITIES. THE MARKET IS TAKING THIS INTEGRATED APPROACH AS ONE ENTITY TO ACTUALLY COME UP WITH A NEW SOLUTION. THESE SIGNALS -- THE MEGAWATT SIGNAL -- [INAUDIBLE] THE MEGAWATTS SIGNAL -- EITHER WAY, IT IS OPTIMUM. THE TECHNOLOGY HAS BEEN APPLIED IN NORTH AMERICA IN NEW ENGLAND, RTO;'S I THINK ARE SIMILAR STRUCTURES. SO IN THE BEGINNING, WE PUSHED FOR THEM -- A COMMON MARKET DESIGN FRAME AND NOW I THINK IT NEEDS TO CHANGE A LITTLE BIT. USING LMP AS THE BASE IN THE UNITED STATES. PJM IS PROBABLY THE FIRST ONE AND THEN NEW ENGLAND IS THE BEGINNING. [INAUDIBLE] THAT CHANGED. AFTERWARDS, THEY FOLLOWED THE SAME PATTERN. A LOT OF RTO'S STARTED CO=-- OPTIMIZING. THEY ARE DOING PRETTY MUCH SIMILAR THINGS. [INAUDIBLE] BASICALLY THE FRAMEWORK IS DISPATCHED LIKE THIS. HERE IS THE HIGH-LEVEL FORMULATION THAT WE HAVE. THIS IS THE RESERVE AND THE GENERATIONS. THIS IS THE RESERVE CONSTRAINED. IT DEPENDS ON THE IMPLEMENTATION A LOT OF THE TIME AND SOME OF THE RTO'S MAY IMPLEMENT A TRANSMISSION FLOW [INAUDIBLE] LMP IS THE FOUNDATION. BECAUSE OF THE FACT THAT WE ARE IMPLEMENTING LOCAL RISING AND THERE WILL BE QUESTIONS THAT WE NEED TO ADDRESS -- THE PRICE DIFFERENCE IN CONGESTION RENT, WE TRY TO ADDRESS THE RISK ASSOCIATED. THIS MECHANISM HAS BEEN INCREDIBLY EFFECTIVE. FTR IS BASED ON THE RESERVATION LEVEL. [INAUDIBLE] FOR THE LMP-BASED TWO SETTLEMENT SYSTEM, A LOT OF THIS HAS BEEN TALKING ABOUT THE MARKET. [INAUDIBLE] NORMALLY THE MARKETS SOLUTION -- LOOK AHEAD, IT IS INDICATIVE OF A LOT OF THE TIME BUT THOSE ARE IMPORTANT TO MITIGATE THE SITUATION. THIS IS THE MECHANISM TO ADDRESS UNCERTAINTY. AS FAR AS THE TRANSMISSION CONGESTION, YOU CAN SEE THE PRICE CAN CHANGE SIGNIFICANTLY. A LOT OF THE TRANSMISSION CONSTRAINTS WILL ACTUALLY COST -- [INAUDIBLE] BECAUSE OF THAT, IN THIS SITUATION, SOME OF THE COSTS HAVE TO BE INCREASED. HERE ARE SOME OF THE CONCEPTS IN THE AREA OF OPTIMAL TRANSMISSION , THE BENEFIT AND MOTIVATION IN TERMS OF TRANSMISSION SWITCHING. ONE OF THE QUESTIONS IS, CAN THIS BE PRACTICAL? THIS IS THE MODEL WE HAVE BEEN USING. I DON'T NEED TO GO INTO DETAIL. ONE OF THE INTERESTING ELEMENTS SHOWS THE BASIC MODEL. THE VARIABLE REPRESENTS THE STATE OF TRANSITION ELEMENTS. SOME OF THE PRACTICAL CONSIDERATIONS, WE ARE SWITCHING THE LINES. THE NUMBER OF VARIABLES REPRESENTING THE STATE OF TRANSMISSIONS IS SIGNIFICANT. ONE OF THE WAYS TO GET TO A COMPROMISE IS TO LIMIT THE NUMBER OF SWITCHABLE TRANSMISSION LINES. THE GENERAL STRATEGY IS TO LIMIT THOSE NUMBER OF LINES THAT CAN SWITCH AND CAN BE OPEN AND SEE WHETHER WE COULD GET TO A TRACTABLE TYPE OF SOLUTION. THE NUMBER OF LINES OPENING IS GETTING BIGGER. ONE THING THAT I WOULD LIKE TO POINT OUT IS THE FACT THAT WE ACTUALLY IMPLEMENT A MODEL , THERE COULD BE A PERFORMANCE DIFFERENCE. [INAUDIBLE] SELECTION MEASURES FOR SWITCHING CANDIDATES, ONE THING WE COULD LOOK INTO IS TRANSMISSION LINES THAT HAVE LIMIT VIOLATIONS. THEY INTRODUCE A VIOLATION PENALTY. OF COURSE, THESE KIND OF THINGS NORMALLY DON'T HAPPEN. SECOND IS TO LOOK INTO CONGESTION RENT. THIS INDEX HAS BEEN USED IN A NUMBER OF PAPERS. [INAUDIBLE] BOTH OF THEM ARE USING A FAIRLY SIMILAR INDEX. IF YOU LOOK AT THIS GRAPH INDICATING THAT USING CONGESTION RENTS, NOT NECESSARILY THE HIGHEST ONE, IT INDICATED THAT IT COULD POTENTIALLY GIVE YOU INDICATORS. WHAT THIS PARTICULAR PAPER IS TALKING ABOUT HIS PRODUCTION COST. THE GOAL IS TO TRY TO CALCULATE WITH RESPECT TO THE LINE. IF YOU LOOK AT THE POWER FLOW, THE VECTORS OF CHANGE OF TRANSMISSION LINES. MATRIX A THAT WE CONSTRUCT. WE MULTIPLY SO WE CAN CONSTRUCT A FORM. IF WE DO THE OTHER RUN --NALGE ALGEBRA, WE CAN INTERPRET THIS DATA AS THE FLOW OF THE TRANSMISSION LINE. THE PRODUCTION COST, WE COULD COME UP WITH THIS EXPRESSION. THIS IS THE DATA THAT WE ALREADY CALCULATED. THE COST OVER HERE. THE PRODUCTION COST IS A MEASURE FOR CANDIDATE SELECTION. THE METHOD IS TO TRY TO, BASED ON BOTH THE PRODUCTION COST CHANGE AS WELL AS THE CONGESTION RENT, TO COMBINE THE TWO AND GENERATE A MEASURE FOR US TO ACTUALLY RANK THE LINES ACCORDINGLY. TRY TO TAKE THE VIOLATION MINE FIRST AND IF WE NEED MORE, THEN WE WILL CUT YOU WITH THE INDEX AND RANK. -- CALCULATE THE INDEX AND RANK. HERE IS THE FIVE BUS STATE THAT WE JUST TALKED ABOUT. WE HAVE THE B MATRIX AND THE PI MATRIX WHICH IS A VERY SIMILAR STRUCTURE. WE CAN ACTUALLY CALCULATE THE DATA WHICH IS SOME ELEMENTS OF THE PI AND GET A RELATIONSHIP IN THE ANGLES AND THE FLOW. HERE WE CAN ACTUALLY COMPARE THE ANGLES. FROM THERE, WE COULD CALCULATE THE LINE FLOW. THE SENSITIVITY OF THE PRODUCTION COST AND THE PRODUCTION COSTS ASSOCIATED WITH TRANSMISSION LINES. THE NEXT SYSTEM THAT WE TRY IS A 37,000-BOSS -- 37,000-BUS. THE FIRST CASE HAD A LOT OF VIOLATIONS. SEVEN LINES ARE BEING SWITCHED OFF. [INAUDIBLE] HERE IS ANOTHER CASE. THERE ARE 44 LINES AND ARE HUNDRED 70 GENERATION UNITS. IF WE THINK OF THE CONGESTION RENT WHICH IS THE MODEL THAT OTHER PEOPLE PROPOSE, WE ACTUALLY COULD SEE 19 CANDIDATES. WE END UP HAVING FOUR LINES OPEN. THE APPROACH COMBINING BOTH THE CONGESTION RENT AND THE OTHER MODEL, THE PRODUCTION COST -- WE ACTUALLY HAVE 14 LINES AS CANDIDATES. SEVEN LINES ARE OPEN. FOR THAT CASE, WE CAN COMPARE WITHOUT THE OPTIMUM TRANSMISSION SWITCHING VERSUS THE INDEX. THERE IS OBJECTIVE SAVINGS ID THE -- OF THE CR. THIS GRAPH INDICATES THE GENERATION COST. THE RED ONE IS THE ONE WITH THE OPTIMAL TRANSMISSION SOLUTION. THIS IS THE TYPICAL HARDWARE THAT WE USE FOR RUNNING THIS CASE. THIS IS ONE SINGLE PERIOD ATTEMPT. [INAUDIBLE] A LOT OF THE RTO REAL-TIME DISPATCH DOES NOT [INAUDIBLE] HERE IS THE PERFORMANCE. [INAUDIBLE] THIS IS THE NUMBER OF LINES WE ARE ALLOWED TO SWITCH. YOU CAN SEE A 50% INCREASE IN THAT CASE. SO HERE IS THE CONCLUSION. WE DISCUSSED TRANSMISSION SWITCHING FOR POWER SYSTEM OPERATIONS. A BASIC MODEL WITH CO-OPTIMIZING OF ENERGY AND TRANSMISSION. THE SIZE OF THE CANDIDATE TRANSMISSION NEEDS TO BE LIMITED IN ORDER TO STOP THE PROBLEM. THE OPTIMAL TRANSMISSION SWITCHING IS VERIFIED TO IMPROVE MARKET EFFICIENCY. CRITERIA HAVE BEEN PRESENTED AND A METHOD IS PROPOSED TO SELECT CANDIDATES FOR TRANSMISSION SWITCHING. FURTHER STUDY NEEDS TO BE DONE. .